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GSM

 

     

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WCDMA

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CDMA

 

     

??????????????????? Digital Cellular GSM ???????????????

  • ????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ??? ???????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ???????????? 1982 ??? CEPT, (Conf'erence Europ'eenne des Administrations des Postes et des Te'le'communications) ?????????????? Groupe Spe'ciale Mobile ?????????????????????????????? GSM ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? GSM ????????????? pan European

??? ?????????????????????????? ????????????? GSM

  • ???????????????????????????????? 900MHz ??????????? 25MHz ??????????????? ????????????????????? 890 - 915MHz ?????????????????????? 935 -960MHz ,???????????????????????????????? 45MHz ,??????????????????? ????? ??????? channel no.1 -124 ??????????? channel ?????? 200kHz
  • ?????????? TDMA techniques ?????????? GSM ????? channel ??????????????????? ???? GSM ?????????????????? channel ??????????????????? 8 timeslots ??????????? GSM ?? channel ?????????????? ???? 124 frequency channels x 8 time slots = 992 digital channels,???????????????? 8 time slots ??????????????????????????????????????????? TDMA frame ???????????????????????????????????????? TDMA frame ?????????? 8 time slots ??????? ???????????????? GSM ????? ????????????? time slots ??? 1 ???????????????????????????????? time slots ??? 1 ???????? ?????? 7 time slots ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????? ????????????? ????????????????????? time slots ??? 1?????????????????????????????????????? Transmitter ON ????????????????? time slots ??? 1 ????????????????? Transmitter OFF ????????? Transmitter ON - OFF ??????????? burst timing, ????????? burst timing ????????????????? 577microsec ????????????? TDMA frame ????? 8 time slots ?????????????? 577microsec x 8 time slots = 4.615ms *****??????????????????? GSM ???????????? capacity ?????? ???????????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????????? GSM ??????????????? burst ???? 4.615ms ???????????????? 216.6 Hz ( 1 / 4.615ms) ????????????????????? Audio ???? ?????????? ?????????????????? GSM ?????????????????? home stereo ???????????? 216.6 Hz ???????????????????????? home stereo ????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? electronic ????? ?????? ????????????, ??????????????????, ??????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? GSM ???????????? 33 dBm ???? 2 W ???????????????????????????, ??????? GSM mobile ????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? electronic ??????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? GSM ????????????? ??????????????????????? GSM ??????? block ?????? trigger ??????? air bag ?????????????????? ****** ????????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? roaming ??? security ,????? power consumption ??????????????????????????????? digital ????????????????????? semiconductor ????????????? TDMA ??????????????? battery ????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????? GSM ????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? (1.) teleservices services (2.) bearer services (3) supplementary services ???????????????????? ??????? GSM Phase 1 Services ??? GSM Phase 2 Services ?????

GSM Phase 1 Services

Services category

Service

Comment

Teleservices Telephony (speech)

Emergency calls (speech)

Short-message services :

Telefax

So-called full rate,13kbps

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Alphanumeric information

Group 3

Bearer services Asynchronous data

Synchonous data

Asynchronous PAD (packet-switched,packet assembler / disassembler) access

Alternate speech and data

300-9,600 bps, 1,200/75 bps

300-9,600 bps

300-9600 bps

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300-9,600 bps

Supplementary Services Call forwarding

Call barring

For example, subscriber busy,not reachable or does not answer

For example,all calls,internation calls,incoming calls

 

Services Added Through GSM Phase 2

Services category

Service

Comment

Teleservices Telephony (speech) Half rate,6.5kbps
Bearer services Synchronous dedicated packed data access 2,400-9,600 bps
Supplementary Services Calling/connected line identity presentation

Calling/connected line identity restriction

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Call waiting

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Call hold

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Multiparty communication, Closed user group

Advice of charge

Unstructured supplementary services data

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Operator-determined barring

Displays calling party's directory number before/after call connection

Restricts the display of the calling party's number at called party's side before/after call connection

Informs the user about a second (incoming) call and allows to answer it

Puts an active call on hold in order to answer or originate another (second) call

Conference calls Establishment of groups with limited access

Online charge information

Offers an open communications link for use between network and user for operator-defined services

Restriction of different services,call types by the operator

       
     

????????????? GSM (System Architecture)

??? ??????????????????????? GSM

  • ????????????? GSM ???????????????????????????

  1. ???????????????????????? GSM (Mobile Station Terminal Equipment, MS)
  2. SIM Card (Subsriber Identity Module, SIM)
  3. ??????? (Base Station or Base Transceiver Station, BTS)
  4. ????????????????? (Base Station Controller, BSC)
  5. ?????? Switching ??????? (Gateway Mobile Services Switching Centers ,GMSC)
  6. ??????????????????????????? (Operation and Maintenance Center, OMC)
  7. ?????????????????????????????? (Home Location Register, HLR)
  8. ?????????????????????????????? (Visitor Location Register, VLR)
  9. ?????????????????????? (Authentication, AC)
  10. ??????????????? ID ?????????????????? GSM (Equipment Identity Register, EIR)
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
1. ???????????????????????? GSM (Mobile Station Terminal Equipment) ???????? ?????????????????????????? GSM ??????????????????? Power ????????????? ????????????????? ????? (1.1) ???????????????????????? GSM ????????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? RF output power ?????? 20W (1.2) ???????????????????????? GSM??? Portable (bag phones) ??????? RF output power ?????? 8W (1.3) ??????????????????????? GSM ????? (Handheld) ??????? RF output power ?????? 2W ?????????????????????????? generation ??? 2 ???????????????????? 1993 ???? GSM ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????? GSM ???????? (Handheld) ?????????????????????? analog ????????? GSM ???????????????? ???????????????????? Asian ??? Pacific
2. SIM Card (Subsriber Identity Module) SIM Card ????????????????????????????????????? GSM ?????????????????????????????????????? ????????? SIM ?????????????????????????????? GSM ?????????????????? ?????? emergency calls , SIM ???? smart card ????????????????????????? memory chip ??????????????????????? ??????? ????????????????????? ???????? SIM Card ??????????? (reader) ?????????????????????????? GSM ???????????????? ??????? routine check ?????????????????????????????? GSM ????????????????? SIM ????????????????????????????????, ???? SIM ????????????????????? plug-in SIM ????????????????????????????????????? GSM ?????????????????
parameters ???? ?????????????????????????? GSM ????????????? SIM card ?????????????????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????, SIM card ??????????????????????????????????????????? GSM ?????? SIM card ??????????????????? GSM ??????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? SIM card ???????????????????? ??????????????????????? GSM ??????????? ???????????????????? GSM ?????? SIM card ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? GSM ???????????? ?????????????????????????????? GSM ?????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ***( ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???? ????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? GSM ???????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? GSM ??????????????????????????????????????)***
 
Short messages ???? ?????????????????? GSM ????????????? SIM card ???????????????? SIM card ??????????????????????????????? ??????? microprocessors ????? ??????? SIM card ????????????????????????? ?????? ????????????????????????????????? ?????? credit ??? service card ???????
????????????? SIM card ??????????????? SIM card ???????????? ,SIM card ??????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????,?????????????????????????????????? 4 ???? ??????????? personal identification number (PIN) ,PIN ????????????? SIM card ?????????? PIN code ??? 3 ??????????????? SIM card ?? blocks ???????? ????????? blocks ???????????????????????????????? 8 ???? ??????????? personal unblocking key (PUK) ?????????????? SIM card ??????????
3. ??????? (Base Station or Base Transceiver Station) ???????????????????????????????????????? GSM ?????????????????? cellular ??????????????????????? base transceiver station (BTS) ,BTS ?????????????????????????????????????? GSM ????????? ??????????????? BTS ????????????????????? cell size ,BTS 1 ???? ???? 1 -16 Transceivers ??????????? RF channel ,????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????? analog base stations ??? host network ?????? ???????? radio channels ???????????????? handover ,????????? BTS ?????? GSM ????????????????????????????????????? GSM ????????????????????? ????? ??? ???????????? GSM ?????????? analog ????????????????? ??????????? cellular ???????????????????????? cell size ???????????? ??? cell size ??????? ?????????????? cell ???????????????????? cell size ??????? ????????????????? cell size ???????????????????????? ????????????? cell size ????????????????? analog ???????? handoff ?????????? GSM ???????? handover ?????????????????????????????????
?????? analog ????????????????? power level ??????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? cell size ??????????????????? power level ????????????????????????????????? ?? power level ??cell size ????????????????????????????????????? cell size ???? ??????????????????????????? channel ???????? cell size ???? ??????????????????????? tune ?????????????????? cell size ????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? handoff ??????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????
?????? GSM ??? handover ?????????????????????????????? ?????? GSM ?????????????? GSM ????????????? power level ?? cell size ??????????????????? ????????????????? (BTS) ??????????????????? GSM ??????????????? power level ?? channel ??????????? power level ?? cell size ??????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? (BTS) ???????????????????? (measurement report) ????????? ,??????????????????????????????????????? power level ???????????????? GSM ????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? handover, ???????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? handover ???????????????????? ?????? thresholds ????????? handover ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
 
????????????????????? (BTS) ?????? analog ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????? GSM ????????????????????????? analog ??????????????????? ??????????????? digital cellular ??????? analog ???????? AMPS, NMT, TACS ????????????
???????????????????????????????? GSM ??? ??????? (BTS) ??????????????????????????? ???? Radio Interface (Um)
4. ????????????????? (Base Station Controller,BSC) BSC ????????? monitor ???????????????? ??? 1 BSC ??????????????????? 10 ???? 100 ???? ???????????????????? ???? BSC ????????????????????????????????????? ????????? functions ???? ?????????
?????????????????????? (BTS) ??? ????????????????? (BSC) ?????????????? Abis ????? 2.048-Mb,PCM-30 link (32 slots X 64kbps = 2.048-Mb) fixed-line standard
5.?????? Switching ??????? (Gateway Mobile Services Switching Centers ,GMSC) GMSC ???????????????????? GSM ???? PSTN, GMSC ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? fixed network ?????? BSC ??? BTS ?????????????????? GSM ???????????????? ???????????????????????? PSTN ???, GMSC ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? GSM ?????????????????? ??????? GMSC ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? fixed network ??????????????? GMSC ?? traffic ???????????? cellular ????????????????? GMSC ??????? 1 GMSC ?????????????????? Switching (Mobile Services Switching Centers ,MSC) ?????????????? GMSC ????????????????????? fixed network ??????????? GMSC ??? MSC ??????????? ??????????????????? MSC ?????????????????? home location register (HLR)
???????????????????????????????? (BSC) ??? ?????? Switching (GMSC ???? MSC) ?????????????? A-interface ????? 2.048-Mb,PCM-30 link (CCITT G.703,ISDN standard, 32 slots X 64kbps = 2.048-Mb) fixed-line standard ???? switching ?? GSM PLMN ???????????? CCITT SSN7 protocol
6. ??????????????????????????? (Operation and Maintenance Center, OMC) OMC ????????????????? switching (GMSC,MSC) ???????????????????? (BSC) ?????????????????? error message ?????????????????? ????????? traffic load ?? BSC ??? BTS , ??? OMC ???????????? BTS ?????? BSC ????????????????????????????????? ?????? ????????????????????????????????????????
7. ?????????????????????????????? (Home Location Register, HLR) HLR ??????????????????? ??????????????????? ID ??? ????????????????????????????????????? GMSC ????? , ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? international mobile subscriber number (IMSI) ??????????????? , ??????????????????????????????????????, ?????? authentication key, ?????????????????????????????????????? ????????, ?????????????????????,?????????????????? ?????????? (1) ????????????????????????????????????????????????? visitor location register (VLR) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (2) ????????????????????????? call forwarding ??? (3) ?? parameters ?????? authentication ??? ciphering
IMSI ???????????????????? SIM card , IMSI ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? subscriber ????????? GSM ???????????? IMSI ??????????????? 262 02 454 275 1010 ???????????????????????????? ???? 3 ?????????? mobile country code (MCC) ??????? 2 ???????????? mobile network code (MNC) ??????? 10 ?????????????????????? mobile subscriber identification number (MSIC) ????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????? subscriber ?????????????????????? (MCC=262) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????? D2 privat (MNC=02) ?????????????????????? SIM ??? (MSIC) 454 275 1010 , ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? GSM ??????????? IMSI ???????????????????? area code ???? 0127 ????????????????????????? 7 ???? ????????????????????????????????????????????? HLR ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? HLRs ?????????, IMSI ??????????????????????????????
8. ?????????????????????????????? (Visitor Location Register, VLR) VLR ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? GSM ?????????????????? serving ?????????????? (G)MSC ?????????????????????????????????? 2 ?????? (1) ??????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? HLR, (2) ???????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? HLR ??????? VLR ??????? temporary mobile subscriber identity (TMSI) ???????????????????????????????? IMSI ?????? air interface ??????????????????? TMSI ??????????????? IMSI serves , VLR ???????????????????????????????? (G)MSC ???????????????????????????????? (call establishment and authentication procedure) ?????????????????????????????? subscriber ?????????????????????????????????? (G)MSC ????? (G)MSC ????, ??????????????????? subscriber ?? VLR ????????????? HLR ??????? traffic ???????? ?? HLR ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? HLR ??? VLR ???? ???????????????????? serves ???????????? ,HLR ???????????????????????? subscriber ????? GMSC ???????????????????? public network , ???? VLR ???????????????? serves ?? function ?????????????????? HLR ??????????????????????? subscriber ????? (G)MSC ???????????????????????????????????????????? GSM (???? ?????? authentication) ?????????????????????????? GSM ????????????????????? (G)MSC ???????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? HLR ??? VLR ???? ?????????????????? VLR ????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????
9. ?????????????????????? (Authentication, AC) AC ????????????????? HLR ???????????????????? HLR ???? set ?????????????? parameters ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? GSM, AC ?????????????????? algorithm ??????????????????????????? subscriber ????????????????????????? input ??? ?????????????? ??????????? algorithms ??????????????????????????????????????????? AC ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????, SIM card ??????????????????????????? AC ??? algorithms ????????????????? AC ?????????????????? ?? AC ?????? parameter ?? input ??? output ?????? algorithms ?????????????? HLR ???? VLR ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? GSM ???
10. ??????????????? ID ?????????????????? GSM (Equipment Identity Register, EIR) EIR ???? option ??????? ???????????????????????????????????????? ????????? EIR ??????????????????????????????????????????? GSM, ????? EIR ??????? serial number ????????????????????????????????? GSM ???????????? , international mobile equipment identity (IMEI) ??????????????? serial number ??????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? , ???????????? check ????????????????????????? call setup ?????????????????????????? GSM ????????? ?????????????? IMEI ???????? ???????????????? ??? access ???????????????????????? GSM ????????
 

 

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