Sexual arousal disorders were previously known as frigidity in women and impotence in men, though these have now been replaced with less judgmental terms. Impotence is now known as erectile dysfunction, and frigidity has been replaced with a number of terms describing specific problems with, for example, desire or arousal.
For both men and women, these conditions can manifest as an aversion to, and avoidance of, sexual contact with a partner. In men, there may be partial or complete failure to attain or maintain an erection, or a lack of sexual excitement and pleasure in sexual activity.
Sexual pain disorders affect women almost exclusively and are known as dyspareunia (painful intercourse) and vaginismus (an involuntary spasm of the muscles of the vaginal wall that interferes with intercourse). Dyspareunia may be caused by insufficient lubrication (vaginal dryness) in women.
A recent study estimates that 30 million men suffer from various degrees of erectile dysfunction. This can range from mild to severe. It is clearly an age-related phenomenon with the prevalence of erectile dysfunction increasing significantly with age. Surprisingly, by the time men reach 40, 5% of them are completely impotent never achieving an erection rigid enough for penetration. Approximately 15% have significant problems achieving or maintaining an erection.
A man with erectile dysfunction has either a problem getting an erection or difficulty maintaining one. This usually interferes with sexual activity by preventing penetration during intercourse.
Men who do not benefit from medical or psychological treatment often have success with mechanical or prosthetic devices. External products, known as vacuum erection devices, are safe and highly effective, but many men and their partners find them unappealing. Another option is a surgically placed penile implant. However, because implants require surgery (with the risk of surgical complications), only 10 percent of men with erectile dysfunction choose this option. Vascular (blood vessel) surgery sometimes is recommended for young, healthy men who develop impotence after trauma to the groin.