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According to a popular history of chemistry, "chemistry played a pioneering role in the organization of the sciences, since it was the first discipline for which an international congress of specialists was organized (at Karlsruhe in 1860)." The same history goes on to explain the marketing manifesto:

international rivalry was encouraged by a series of World Expositions that took place almost every four years between 1862 and 1900, allowing the public to compare dyes displayed by various companiesThe

The University of Chicago opened its doors in October 1892, and the Department of Mathematics organized a Congress of Mathematicians to be held in connection with the Columbia Exposition.
The German government commissioned Felix Klein as its official representative. The conference had a stimulating effect on the scientists. Subsequently there has been
a sequence of **International Congresses of Mathematicians** with the first official ICM in 1897 in Zurich. Sometimes the
Chicago Congress is called the **zero-th ICM** for its primordial role in the instituted sequence. The proceedings of this conference (see references) have Library of Congress call number QA1 I8, and are shelved just to the left of the sequence of proceedings from the subsequent ICMs.

**Transformation Zeitgeist**

The publication of Sophus Lie's __Transformation Groups__ in 1888 was an important event. It developed some tools needed to advance the transformation geometry proposed by Felix Klein at Erlangen some years before. Further, Alexander MacFarlane had started a dialogue on the most suitable quaternion-allied system for doing electromagnetic theory. And coincidentally, Oliver Heaviside delivered his __Electromagnetic Theory__ in 1893, a book that started with a complete chapter devoted to mathematical method.

** Chicago Congress of Mathematicians, 1993:**

Alexander Macfarlane joined the mathematicians and entered his name on the Official Register. He read
papers on the definitions of the trigonometric functions and on the principles of elliptic and hyperbolic analysis. The
mathematical papers of the Chicago Congress were published in 1896 under the editorial guidance of
E.H.Moore, Henry S. White, Oskar Bolza, and Heinrich Mashke, but MacFarlane's contributions were not included, even
though acknowledged.

**Official Register:**

Charlotte C. Barnum, New Haven, Connecticut

Wooster W. Beman A.M. professor of mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

E.M. Blake, Ph.D. instructor in mathematics, Columbia College, New York

T.M. Blakslee, Ph.D. professor of mathematics, Des Moines College, Des Moines, Iowa

Oskar Bolza, Ph.D. associate professor of mathematics, University of Chicago

Ellery W. Davis, Ph.D. professor of mathematics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

Henry T. Eddy, Ph.D., C.E., President of Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre Haute, Indiana

Achsah M. Ely, B.A. professor of mathematics, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York

Rufus L. Green, M.A. associate professor of mathematics, Leland Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, California

George Bruce Halsted, Ph.D. professor of mathematics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas

Norbert Hertz, Ph.D., Vienna, Austria

Thomas F. Holgate, Ph.D. instructor in mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

Lorrain S. Hulburt, M.A. instructor in mathematics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

John W. Johnson, M.A. associate professor of physics and astronomy, University of Mississippi

H.G. Keppel, fellow in mathematics, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts

Felix Klein Ph.D., professor of mathematics, University of Gottingen, Germany

John H. Kleinheksel, M.A. professor of mathematics, Hope College, Holland, Michigan

Frank H. Loud B.A. professor of mathematics and astronomy, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado

Alexander Macfarlane, Sc.D., LL.D., professor of physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas

James McMahon M.A. assistant professor of mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Heinrich Maschke Ph.D. assistant professor of mathematics, University of Chicago

Mansfield Merriman Ph.D., C.E. professor of civil engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

John A. Miller, M.A. instructor in mathematics, Leland Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, California

E. Hastings Moore, Ph.D. professor of mathematics, University of Chicago

James E. Oliver M.A. professor of mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Max Osterberg, Columbia College, New York

Bernard Paladini Ph.D. University of Pisa, Italy

John E. Purdon M.D. Cullman, Alabama

Edward D. Roe Jr. associate professor of mathematics, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio

Ida M. Schottenfels, A.B., Chicago, Illinois

Montague R. Severson M.D. Charlottesville, Virginia

James B. Shaw Jr. Ph.D. professor of mathematics, Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois

William B. Smith Ph.D. professor of mathematics and astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri

William E. Story Ph.D. professor of mathematics, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts

E. Study Ph.D. professor extraordinarius of mathematics, University of Marburg, Germany

Henry Taber Ph.D. assistant professor of mathematics, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts

Harry W. Tyler Ph.D. professor of mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts

Charles A. Van Velzer Ph.D. professor of mathematics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

John M. Van Vleck, M.A., LL.D. professor of mathematics and astronomy, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut

Clarence A. Waldo M.A. professor of Mathematics, De Pauw University, Greencastle, Indiana

Arthur G. Webster Ph.D. assistant professor of mathematical physics, Clark University, Evanston Illinois

Henry S. White Ph.D. associate professor of mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston Illinois

Mary F. Winton A.B. honorary fellow in mathematics, University of Chicago

M.J. Yantzyn, San Francisco, California

Alexander Ziwet, assistant professor of mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

**References:**

1. *Mathematical Papers read at the International Mathematical Congress held in Connection with the World's Columbia
Exposition, Chicago 1893* , MacMillan Co./ American Mathematical Society, 1906. Includes Official Register and
editor's statement on page 167 concerning Alexander Macfarlane's pamphlets. Keynote lecture: " The Present State of
Mathematics" by Felix Klein, pp.133-5.

2. *History of Chemistry* (1995) Bensaude-Vincent & Stengers,

translated by Deborah van Dam from the 1993 French original, published by Harvard, pages 95 & 182

3. Official "Klein" photo: *A Century of Mathematics in America*, Part III, page four,
Peter Duren editor, AMS, 1988.

4. Ronald R. Klein (1992) *Steinmetz : engineer and socialist*,page 90, Johns Hopkins University Press.

5. History of University of Chicago Department of Mathematics

6. Photo with Henry Clew in Chicago: from Emilio Segre Visual Archive which has 25,000 images!

7. David E Rowe & Karen Hunger Parshall "Come to the Fair: The Chicago Mathematical Congress of 1893", see pp. 61-69 of __A Century of Mathematical Meetings__ Bettye Anne Case editor, AMS.

8. Herman Weyl "Relativity as a Stimulus in Mathematical Research" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93:535-41. There is a brief reference to antipathy between Study and Klein in this paper's opening. Available on JSTOR.

Read the
Alexander Macfarlane Homepage to learn about his contributions to science.